‌September 13th, 2023

Protection of Covid-19 vaccination against hospitalisation during the era of Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 predominance


Knowing the duration of effectiveness of COVID-19 booster doses is essential to provide decision makers with scientific arguments about the frequency of subsequent injections. We estimated the level of protection against COVID-19-related-hospitalisations (Omicron BA.4-BA.5) over time after vaccination, accounting for breakthrough infections.



In this nationwide case-control study, all cases of hospitalisations for COVID-19 identified in the comprehensive French National Health Data System between 06/01/2022 and 10/15/2022 were matched with up to 10 controls by year of birth, sex, department, and an individual COVID-19 hospitalisation risk score. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate the level of protection against COVID-19-related-hospitalisations conferred by primary and booster vaccination, accounting for history of SARS-COV-2 infection.



38,839 cases were matched to 377,653 controls. 19.2% and 9.9% were unvaccinated, respectively, while 68.2% and 77.7% had received ≥1 booster dose. Protection provided by primary vaccination reached 45%[42%; 47%]. The incremental effectiveness of booster doses ranged from 69%[67%; 71%] (≤2 months) to 22%[19%; 25%] (≥6 months). Specifically, the second booster provided an additional protection compared with the first ranging from 61%[59%; 64%] (≤2 months) to 7%[2%; 13%] (≥4 months). Previous SARS-COV-2 infection conferred a strong, long-lasting protection (51% ≥ 20 months). There was no incremental effectiveness of a second booster among individuals infected since the first booster.



In the era of Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 predominance, primary vaccination still conferred protection against COVID-19 hospitalisation, while booster doses provided an additional time-limited protection. The second booster had no additional protection in case of infection since the first booster.

Access the article

Find the article on the website of Open Forum Infectious Diseases