To estimate the effectiveness of the three covid-19 vaccines by Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Moderna (mRNA-1273), and Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1-S) in people after receiving two doses.
Nationwide, population based data in France, from the French National Health Data System (Système National des Données de Santé), between 27 December 2020 and 30 April 2021.
Adults aged ≥50 years receiving a first dose of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or ChAdOx1-S were randomly selected (1:1) and matched on the date of vaccination with one unvaccinated control. Individuals were matched on year of birth, sex, region of residence, and residence in a nursing home (for individuals aged ≥75 years). All individuals were followed up until 20 August 2021.
Main outcome measures
Primary outcome measure was vaccine effectiveness estimated at least 14 days after the second dose against covid-19 related hospital admission using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for baseline characteristics and comorbidities. Vaccine effectiveness against covid-19 related death in hospital was also investigated.
11 256 832 vaccinated individuals were included in the study (63.6% (n=7 161 658) with the BNT162b2 vaccine, 7.6% (n=856 599) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and 28.8% (n=3 238 575) with the ChAdOx1-S vaccine), along with 11 256 832 matched unvaccinated controls. During follow-up (up to 20 August 2021), 43 158 covid-19 related hospital admissions and 7957 covid-19 related deaths in hospital were registered. Compared with unvaccinated controls, vaccine effectiveness of two doses against covid-19 related hospital admission was 91% (95% confidence interval 91% to 92%), 95% (93% to 96%), and 91% (89% to 94%) for the BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and ChAdOx1-S vaccines, respectively. Similar results were observed for vaccine effectiveness of two doses against covid-19 related deaths in hospital (BNT162b2, 91% (90% to 93%); mRNA-1273, 96% (92% to 98%); and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 88% (68% to 95%)). At 5-6 months after receiving the second dose of vaccine, effectiveness remained high at 94% (92% to 95%) for the BNT162b2 vaccine and 98% (93% to 100%) for the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness of ChAdOx1-S estimated at 3-4 months was 90% (63% to 97%). All three vaccines remained effective at the time of circulation of the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 between 1 July and 20 August 2021 (effectiveness between 89% and 95%).
These findings provide evidence indicating that two doses of ChAdOx1-S is as effective as two doses of mRNA vaccines in France against the alpha and delta variants of SARS-CoV-2. The effectiveness of ChAdOx1-S should be further examined with a longer follow-up and in the light of the circulation of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.
Find the article on the website of BMJ Medicine