To investigate whether IL17-inhibitors (IL17i) initiation in real life is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with psoriasis (PsO), psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (PsA/AS).
This nationwide cohort study involved the French national health data system database. All adults with PsO and PsA/AS who were new-users of IL17i during 2016-2019 were included. Two non-exposed PsO and PsA/AS population were included: new-users of (1) apremilast and (2) etanercept. End of follow-up was September 30, 2019. The primary end-point was an occurrence of IBD in a time-to-event analysis with propensity score-weighted Cox and Fine-Gray models.
A total of 16,793 IL17i new-users (mean age 48.4±13 years; 46% men); 20,556 apremilast new-users (mean age 52.5±14.6 years; 53% men); and 10,245 etanercept new-users (mean age 46.3±15 years; 44% men) were included. Previous systemic treatements were closer between IL17i and etanercept compared with apremilast. IBD occurred in 132 cases: 72 (0.43%) in IL17i new-users, 11 (0.05%) in apremilast new-users and 49 (0.48%) in etanercept new-users. Most IBD cases occurred after 6 months of exposure (82%, 55% and 76% respectively). After propensity score weighting, the risk of IBD was significantly greater with IL17i than apremilast (HRw 3.8, 95%CI 2.1-6.8). No difference was observed between IL17i and etanercept new-users (HRw 0.8, 95%CI 0.5-1.2).
Compared with patients initiating etanercept that displayed the same severity of the underlying disease, IL17i new-users did not present a higher risk of IBD. These results need to be confirmed in other large databases.
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